- Agriculture & Economy
- Flora & Fauna
- KAZIRANGA NATIONAL PARK
Assam has four well defined seasons in a year…….summer, monsoon, winter and spring. October to April is considered the best time to visit Assam as these months offer a mild and moderate climate with pleasant and sunny days and cool nights. Assam is never extremely cold or hot though during December and January night time temperatures may fall to single digit numbers.
Agriculture accounts for more than a third of Assam’s income and employs 69 percent of total workforce. Assam’s biggest contribution to the world is its tea. Assam produces some of the finest and most expensive teas in the world. Assam is the only region in the world that has its own variety of tea. The other agricultural produce involves rice, sugarcane, pulses, potatoes and jute. Fruits like mangoes, bananas, pineapple and guavas are also produced in the state. Agro based industries prevail in the state coupled with the tea industry that has a major contribution to the economy of the state of Assam.
Assam is a major producer of crude oil and natural gas in India. Other industries include the petroleum industry with one of the oldest oil ventures of the world situated in Digboy. The state also earns revenue from the mining industry that produces the four important industrial minerals of coal, limestone, sillimanite and oil.
broadly speaking the forest in Assam can be described into following types/ sub types.
– Tropical Wet Evergreen Forests.
– Tropical Semi Evergreen Forests.
– Tropical Moist Deciduous Forests.
– Sub-tropical Broadleaf Hill Forests.
– Sub-tropical Pine Forests.
– Littoral and Swamp Forests.
– Grassland and Savannahs.
Assam has numerous wildlife sanctuaries, the most prominent of which are two UNESCO World Heritage sites -the Kaziranga National Park, on the bank of the Brahmaputra River, and theManas Wildlife Sanctuary, near the border with Bhutan. The state is the last refuge for numerous other endangered and threatened species including the White-winged Wood Duck or Deohanh, Bengal Florican, Black-breasted Parrotbill, Red-headed vulture, White-rumped vulture, Greater Adjutant,Jerdon’s Babbler, Rufous-necked hornbill, Bengal tiger, Asian elephant, Pygmy hog, Gaur, Wild water buffalo, Indian hog deer, Hoolock gibbon, Golden Langur,Capped langur, Barasingha, Ganges river dolphin, Barca snakehead, Ganges shark, Burmese python, Brahminy river turtle, Black pond turtle, Asian forest tortoise, and Assam roofed turtle. Threatened species that are extinct in Assam include the Gharial, a critically endangered fish-eating crocodilian, and the Pink-headed duck(which may be extinct worldwide). For the State Bird, the White-winged Wood Duck, Assam is a globally important area.
About two-thirds of the Assamese are Hindu, the majority of whom follow Vaishnavism, which respect the God Vishnu.Islam is the second-largest religion, representing roughly one-fourth of the population. Christianity has been rising in the state because many of the Scheduled Tribes converted to it.
Guwahati is considered the site of Pragjyotishpura, a semi-mythical town founded by Asura King Naraka who was later killed by Lord Krishna for a pair of magical earrings. The city was a vibrant cultural centre well before the Ahoms arrived, and later the theatre of intense Ahom-Mughal fighting, changing hands eight times in the 50 years before 1681. Most of the old city was wiped out by a huge 1897 earthquake followed by a series of devastating floods.
Capital of Assam since 1972, the Asom State Government is ensconced in a Disneyesque new secretariat complex 6km south of the train station in the Dispur district.
The Kamakhya temple is situated atop the Nilanchal hills, eight hundred meters above sea level and overlooking the mighty Brahmaputra river. It is about eight kilometers west from the heart of the city of Guwahati in Assam. Sati’s body parts, 51 in all, fell all over the earth and each of these places is revered as holy. The organ of generation (Yoni or the genital organs) of Sati fell over the Nilanchal Hills and today is known as Kamakhya Temple.
Kaziranga National Park :is spread over 858 sq.kms and is located in the floodplains on both sides of the Brahmaputra. Patches of mixed deciduous forests are interspersed with vast stretches of savannah grasslands, wetlands and chars of river islands formed by the shifting course of the Brahmaputra. the landscape of Kaziranga is of sheer forest, tall elephant grass, rugged reeds, marshes & shallow pools. It has been declared as National Park in 1974.
Mammals : Kaziranga National Park a world heritage site is famous for the Great Indian one horned rhinoceros, Today this park is home to around two-third of world’s great one-horned Indian rhinos. Besides, with the highest density of tigers among the protected areas of the world, Kaziranga in the year 2006 was also declared as a tiger reserve.
Harbours more than 60% of India’s wild buffalo population along with the only population of the Eastern Swamp deer and seven species of turtles and tortoises. The other important wildlife found are – Leopard, Fishing Cat, other Lesser cats, Large Indian Civet, Small Indian Civet, Sambar, Barking deer, Hog deer, Gaur, Hog Badger, Hoolock Gibbon, Capped Langur, Assamese Macaque, Rhesus Macaque, Sloth Bear, Gangetic Dolphin and Otter etc.
Birds : Home to 25 Globally Threatened and 21 Near Threatened species of birds. So far 480 bird species have been identified and recorded in the Park. The Baza, Bengal Florican, Hornbills, Osprey etc. are the endangered species. Presence of Pelicans and various waterfowls both resident and migratory etc.
Aquatic Flora & Fauna : More than 150 perennial water bodies are located inside the Park, where water level fluctuates temporally resulting in the generation of a very rich aquatic floral diversity. More than 32 species of flora have so far been identified. More than 60 species of fishes have been recorded and is the breeding ground of many of the local species.