- Flora and fauna
- Agriculture and economy
Nagaland, state in extreme northeastern India, bordered on the west and north by Assam state, on the east by Myanmar (formerly known as Burma), on the north by Arunachal Pradesh state, and on the south by Manipurstate. Nagaland, state in extreme northeastern India, bordered on the west and north by Assam state, on the east by Myanmar (formerly known as Burma), on the north by Arunachal Pradesh state, and on the south by Manipurstate. Nagaland has a monsoonal (wet-dry) climate. Annual rainfall averages between 70 and 100 inches (1,800 and 2,500 mm) and is concentrated in the months of the southwest monsoon (May to September). Average temperatures decrease with greater elevation; in the summer temperatures range from the low 70s F (about 21–23 °C) to the low 100s F (about 38–40 °C), while in the winter they rarely drop below 40 °F (4 °C), though frost is common at higher elevations. Humidity levels are generally high throughout the state.
Nagaland is rich in flora and fauna. About one-sixth of Nagaland is under the cover of tropical and sub-tropical evergreen forests—including palms, bamboo, rattan as well as timber and mahogany forests.
While some forest areas have been cleared forjhum cultivation, many scrub forests, high grass, reeds; secondary dogs, pangolins, porcupines, elephants, leopards, bears, many species of monkeys, sambar, harts, oxen, and buffaloes thrive across the state’s forests. Mithun (a semi domesticated Gaur) found only in the north-eastern states of India, is the state animal of Nagaland The Great Indian Hornbill is one of the most famous birds found in the state. Blyth’s Tragopan, a vulnerable species of pheasant, is the state Bird of Nagaland.
Christianity is the predominant religion of Nagaland. Nagaland is known as “the only predominantly Baptist state in the world. Hinduism and Islam is also found in Nagaland. They are minority religions in the state. An ancient indigenous religion known as the Heraka is followed by the people belonging to the Zeliangrong tribe living in Nagaland.Other than English,Naga people speak over 36 different languages and dialects, mostly unintelligible with each other.
Nagaland has basically an agricultural economy. Over 70% of the population is dependent on agriculture. The main crops are rice, millet, maize and pulses. Cash crops like sugarcane and potato are also becoming popular. Coffee, cardamom and tea are grown as plantation crops in Nagaland.Rice is the dominant crop and also the staple diet of the people. The state of Nagaland boasts of a huge stock of minerals too like that of coal, natural gas, decorative stones, petroleum, marble, nickel, cobalt-chromium bearing magnetite
Kohima is the land of the Angami Naga tribe. The name, Kohima, was officially given by the British as they could not pronounce the name Kewhima or Kewhira It is called after the wild flowering plant Kewhi.
Kohima World War-Ii Cemetery
Kohima War Cemetery is a memorial in honor of those officers and soldiers killed during the World War II.
On the 18 plots of the cemetery, there are 1421 slabs erected in memory of soldiers who were killed in the battle of Kohima. Each grave is supported by a bronze plaque with an apt epitaph. Historians have called Battle of Kohima “one of the bitterly fought battles of the Second World War” and a “battle of Attrition” involving “fierce hand-to-hand combat”. The reasons are many. The most bitter battle ever fought lasted for three months. Only 20,000 of the 85,000 Japanese who had come to invade India were left standing. The cost of the allies has been 17,857 British and Indian troops killed, wounded and missing. Before leaving Kohima the British erected a moving memorial in memory of their fallen comrades.
Kohima Cathedral (Biggest In Asia)
Located at Aradura Hill, the Cathedral dominates the landscape of Kohima. It has become an important tourist destination and is the largest cathedral in the Asia. This was put up on the request of the Japanese who contributed towards the building of the church. In the spring of 1944, Japanese, British and Indian forces fought for the Garrison Hill during the Battle of Kohima. Thousands were killed. The Japanese survivors of the battle and bereaved families collected contributions towards the making of the Cathedral so that prayers could be offered in the memory of their loved ones.
Located at Bayavü Hill, it houses a rare collection of artifacts of each Naga tribe. The State Museum also has authentic Naga precious stones on display. Here one can see the most valued and expensive necklaces used by the Nagas. They are an assortment of precious stones which include cornelian, tourmaline, coral, core of xancus, ivory and other beads, brass and silver bells. Another interesting displays are the Naga Morung/hut models, Musical instruments.
Naga Heritage Complex Kisama-Kohima
The Naga Heritage Complex was inaugurated by the Government of Nagaland on 1st December 2003, where the HORNBILL FESTIVAL is celebrated annually. The Naga Heritage Complex serves as “Window to Nagaland” (WTN), aims to showcase the state in a single platform, through which one can have a peep into the Naga Heritage. The complex will also house the “World War II Museum”.
The WTN houses the traditional houses or “Morungs”, representing the 16 recognized tribes of Nagaland. Each of these units display the distinctive aspects of each tribe, in terms of crafts, cuisine, cultural activities, etc., as well as provide the market outlets for the many unique local products of all the tribes in the state.
The Bara Basti literally means the ‘big village’ and is believed to be the second largest village in Asia. It forms the north eastern part of Kohima Bara Basti, also known as Kohima village, is considered as the point of origin of Kohima, and according to legends, was established by a man called Whinuo hence Kewhira, the original name. Kohima Village is an admixture of the past and present. In the olden days it was believed that Kohima Village had seven lakes and seven gateways. Till today a huge gate still stands at the entrance of the village,. The gate is carved with motifs of warriors and guns the symbol of prosperity the ‘Mithun’ (The Indian Bison).